Hispanic Studies Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018.

Undecidability in Lorca’s Amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín 
By Andrew Anderson, University of Virginia. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 1-13 

Amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín, the spectator or reader encounters unresolved, and perhaps unresolvable, ambiguities, discontinuities, and unknowns; these arise locally, at numerous specific points in the text, and also affect the broad, overall understanding and interpretation of the dialogue and action. This article offers an analysis of all these instances, both large and small, and argues that, taken together, they constitute an important and pervasive feature of the play that, ultimately, becomes thematized as undecidability. In this regard, Amor de don Perlimplín therefore aligns more closely with Lorca’s experimental theatre of the 1930s, such as El público, rather than with the plays with which it is more commonly compared, such as La zapatera prodigiosa or the puppet pieces. 

Cuba y Cataluña en la España de Franco: las crónicas de viaje de Josep Pla para Destino 
Por Pilar Bellver, Marquette University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 14-29 

En 1954 Josep Pla escribe para la revista catalana Destino una serie de crónicas sobre Cuba. A diferencia de otros viajeros contemporáneos a la isla, sus crónicas no devienen en una defensa de la Hispanidad ni en un alegato nostálgico del papel tutelar de la metrópolis en las excolonias. Por el contrario, sus descripciones del paisaje urbano cuestionan los lugares comunes del nacionalismo español, a la par que la descripción del bullicio y la actividad de La Habana se convierte en un ataque velado a las políticas económicas del franquismo. A pesar de esta actitud crítica, las crónicas de Pla sobre Cuba no se hacen eco de una sensibilidad anticolonial sino que refuerzan estereotipos imperantes sobre la inferioridad de las culturas mestizas. Su distanciamiento respecto a la retórica franquista para Latinoamérica tiene como objetivo legitimar su propia identidad como catalán y reivindicar el papel de Cataluña como vector de modernización en las Américas.

The Performance of Illness in Cristina Rivera Garza’s Nadie me verá llorar 
By Sarah Booker, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 30-45  

Illness, its manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment, is central to Cristina Rivera Garza’s novel Nadie me verá llorar. In consideration of both mental and physical maladies and acknowledging the rhetoric of disease that was central to Mexican projects of modernity, this article traces the ways in which illness is used as a mechanism of control in Rivera Garza’s novel and the ways in which the performance of such afflictions has the potential to function as an act of resistance. It becomes apparent that in early twentieth-century Mexico, as represented in this novel, there is a potentially radical side to illness and the performance thereof, as it allows for the subversion of marginalizing power structures that use health to subjugate people. 

Performing Transnational Maya Experiences in Florida and San Juan Chamula in Workers in the Other World by Sna Jtz’ibajom and Robert M. Laughlin 
By Tiffany D. Creegan Miller, Clemson University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 46-62 

This article addresses representations of the relationship between indigeneity and migration in Workers in the Other World (Trabajadores en el otro mundo, 1998) by Sna Jtz’ibajom and Robert M. Laughlin. The analysis first examines the dramatic ellipses in the context of storytelling and performance art to argue that this structure engages in theatrical activism to attempt to make an intervention in migratory trends. Next, we turn our at- tention to the characters’ clothing and the play’s representation of AIDS, as both an immunological disease affecting one of the protagonists and a social illness resulting in environmental degradation, lack of access to clean water, and violations of workers’ rights. Ironically, the protagonists of the play have less in Florida than they had in their hometown in Chiapas. As such, the playwrights affiliated with Sna Jtz’ibajom present an overtly anti-migration message, urging fellow Chamulas to remain in Chiapas instead of migrating to the United States. 

Visual/Geo-Spatial Knowledge and the Digital Library: On the “Mutaciones” Section of Agustín Fernández Mallo’s El hacedor (de Borges), Remake (2011)
By Benjamin Fraser, East Carolina University 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 63-77 

This article approaches Agustín Fernández Mallo’s literary text El hacedor (de Borges), Remake (2011) through scholarship on the role of visual knowledge in the digital library. By forging connections between Jorge Luis Borges’ explicit intertext El hacedor (1960) and twenty-first century work by Johanna Drucker (Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production, 2014) and Jeffrey T. Schnapp and Matthew Battles (The Library Beyond the Book, 2014), this article provides a way of assessing the limits of visual and digital forms of knowledge. Rather than advocate a simple rejection or embrace of the digital era, Remake recovers the contradictions of knowledge, time and the visual world that were already present in Borges’ text. Exploration of these contradictions begins by comparing the “Mutaciones” chapters of both versions of El hacedor and focusing on Fernández Mallo’s rewriting of “The Monuments of Passaic” by Robert Smithson. The essay then moves progressively toward theorizations of visual and geo-spatial information in the digital library that reassert Borgesian insights surrounding the vastness of knowledge, the reality of change, and the ultimately ungraspable nature of reality. 

From Policy to Practice: University Instructors’ Implementation of Spanish Language Reforms 
By Ronald Fuentes, University of Memphis, and Inmaculada Gómez Soler, University of Memphis. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 78-100 

This article presents a micro-level analysis of language policy and planning implementation by exploring university foreign language instructors’ interpretation and appropriation of a specific set of language reforms proposed by the Real Academia Española (RAE). Through in-depth qualitative interviews of 15 instructors in a foreign language department in a U.S. university, we analyzed their acceptance and resistance to the language reforms. Acceptance of the reforms was based on issues related to the simplification of the language and the role of the RAE as a language authority; resistance was based on a lack of rationale behind the changes and matters connected to language ownership and identity. The findings indicate that instructors hold agency in policy implementation by negotiating the reforms to the Spanish language to specific contextual demands and classroom practices and taking into account the particular needs of students in said contexts. 

The Development of a Regional Morphosyntactic Feature by Learners of Spanish in a Study Abroad Setting: The Case of Vosotros 
By Angela George, University of Calgary. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 101-125 

The current study investigates the development of the second person plural informal (vosotros as opposed to ustedes) by 24 Spanish majors and minors studying abroad for 14 weeks in Central Spain. Data were gathered at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. A variety of individual and social factors, such as social networks and attitude toward Castilian Spanish, were analyzed to determine why some participants employed vosotros while others did not. A pre, mid, and post survey elicited vosotros in a variety of contexts, while questionnaires and semi-structured interviews shed light on extralinguistic factors affecting the production of this feature. 

Obligation markers in Mexican Spanish: competing forms in a changing system 
By Katherine Honea, Austin Peay State University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 126-150 

Research on diachronic change and modality posit that modal verbs follow certain universal paths of development (e.g. Cornillie, 2007; Bybee & Fleischman, 1995; Bybee, Perkins & Pagliuca, 1994). This study examines the development of Spanish modality in Mexican Spanish using multivariate analyses, relative frequencies, and the comparative method as a means to uncover if and where linguistic changes are taking place and also to expose the subtle differences in patterns of use between two obligation markers – haber de ‘have to’ and tener que ‘have to’ – commonly used between the 16th and 20th centuries.
Using the statistical program GoldVarb, 3,950 tokens were extracted from three corpora, the Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE), the Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA) and the Internet Archive (archive. org), and analyzed and compared across centuries. Results indicated an overall shift in preference from haber de to tener que, suggesting that the system is undergoing longitudinal renewal. A statistical examination of this shift indicated that changes are reflected within tense, verb type, and grammatical person. This study provides evidence from Spanish that corroborates the claim that deontic modals tend to follow a universal path of change. 

Aspects of Social Justice Ally Work in Chilean Historical Fiction: The Case of the Pacification of Araucanía 
By Katherine Karr-Cornejo, Whitworth University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 151-163 

Majority-culture writers often depict cultures different from their own, but approaching cultures to which an author does not belong can be challenging. How might we read dominant-culture portrayals of marginalized cultures that tell stories of injustice? In this paper I utilize the frame of identity development in social justice allies in order to understand the narratives dominant-culture authors use in fiction to reflect sympathetic views of indigenous justice claims. In order to do so, I study three historical novels set in Araucanía during the second half of the nineteenth century, considering historiographical orientation, representation of cultural difference, and understanding of sovereignty: Casas en el agua (1997) by Guido Eytel, Vientos de silencio (1999) by J.J. Faundes, and El lento silbido de los sables (2010) by Patricio Manns. I will show that fiction, even in validating indigenous justice claims, does not overcome past narratives of dominance. 

Female Voice and the Pharmakos: Marcela’s Poisonous Cure in Cervantes’s Intercalated Pastoral Story 
By Brian M. Phillips, Jackson State University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 164-176 

This essay investigates the Marcela/Grisóstomo episode of the Quijote as it relates to astrology, medical terminology, the inclusion/exclusion paradigm and female space in the pastoral and early modern worlds. Marcela’s creation of a female heterotopian space calls attention to feminine voice as the pharmakos that possesses the ability to bind or destroy pastoral Utopia. The pastoral episode of the Quijote portrays a utopian world where its inhabitants ignored the words “tuyo y mío” (Cervantes 97). Grisóstomo’s gender-specific utopian vision of the pastoral, however, is not reciprocated by Marcela, transforming male-projected Utopia into Dystopia. From Marcela’s perspective, she creates a rift in the system and an alternate space that is neither utopian nor dystopian, but heterotopian. For Derrida, the pharmakos is simultaneously absent and always present in the Platonic word chain of pharmakeiapharmakon-pharmakeus. To this end, pastoral female actors, like the pharmakos, are present and necessary to latently hold together the Utopia, and yet they lack formal recognition in the pastoral construct. 

Monstruos en la encrucijada de la crisis. Balada triste de trompeta y su “resistencia monstruosa.” 
Por Roberto Robles Valencia, University of South Alabama. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 177-192 

El presente trabajo ofrece una lectura de Balada triste de trompeta (Alex de la Iglesia 2010) desde la temporalidad de crisis en la que ve la luz. Propone que, partiendo de la mirada propuesta a otras encrucijadas de la historia reciente – Guerra Civil, fin de la Dictadura e inicio de la Transición – , el filme proyecta una inter- pretación compleja y solapada de memoria y crisis, de pasado y presente para erigirse como “artefacto de resistencia”. A través del análisis de los cuatro pilares que organizan la narrativa – lo memorístico-histórico, lo sagrado-religioso, lo cultural y lo monstruoso – este ensayo analiza su posicionamiento como “sitio de memoria” y espacio cultural de resistencia frente al relato hegemónico, con una apuesta central por lo monstruoso como categoría cultural, política y estética. Desde esta estética de lo monstruoso el largometraje dinamita el discurso memorístico, desestabilizando pasado y presente, para enfatizar la necesidad de repensar memoria y crisis como un todo inseparable. 

Fortuna primera de H. G. Wells en España y los avatares de la ciencia ficción (1895-1909) 
Por Juan Herrero Senés, University of Colorado at Boulder. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 193-205 

El presente artículo explora la difusión y recepción temprana de las novelas científicas de H. G. Wells, presenta las distintas razones de su éxito y describe de qué manera se produjo la implantación del género literario de la ciencia ficción en España. Se destacan como cuestiones centrales en estos años de emergencia la redefinición de la noción de realismo, la sustitución de los viajes espaciales por la especulación sobre el futuro como paradigma de ficción científica, así como el ascenso de un desencanto antimoderno que alentaba la publicación de ficciones sobre el fin de la humanidad, distopías y textos apocalípticos. El artículo termina con un repaso a las obras españolas de ciencia ficción más destacadas de la primera década del siglo XX. 

The Spaces of Martín Marco 
By Adam L. Winkel, High Point University. 
Hispanic Studies Review – Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018): 206-220 

In La colmena, Camilo José Cela places his characters in an environment of fragmentation and vigilance that reproduces the Franco regime’s desire for authoritarian control, bolstered by harsh laws that encouraged vigilance among its citizens. Though Cela once likened the workings of his novel to the intricate gears of a clock, one character, the wandering vagabond Martín Marco, threatens the integrity of the system by seemingly remaining outside it. Through a close reading of the geography of the novel and of the spaces in which Martín maneuvers, I explore the permeable boundary between private and public space and how this breakdown affects personal networks. Martín’s experience of space and place reveals that in the difficult postwar años del hambre, even fragmented spaces and gaps fall short of offering any type of refuge because they too form part of a disciplinary structure that has little tolerance for vagrant individuals. 

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